Application and Precautions of Polyacrylamide in Municipal Wastewater Treatment

Table of Contents

Polyacrylamide Introduction

Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a high molecular weight polymer that comes in three types: cationic, anionic, and non-ionic. Its molecular chain contains a large number of covalent bonds, giving it excellent adsorption properties. As a result, PAM is widely used in municipal wastewater treatment, oil extraction, pulp and paper production, and other fields.

Application and Product Categories of Polyacrylamide

Polyacrylamide is mainly used in the flocculation, sedimentation, and dewatering processes in municipal wastewater treatment. Different types of polyacrylamide are required for different wastewater properties and treatment requirements. Cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) is mainly used for flocculation treatment ofhigh-concentration organic pollutants and suspended solids; anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) is suitable for removing minerals, heavy metal ions, etc., in water; non-ionic polyacrylamide (NPAM) is mainly used for flocculation and dewatering of biological sludge. When using polyacrylamide, it first needs to be dissolved into a solution of appropriate concentration. Generally, the concentration of the polyacrylamide solution should be controlled between 0.1% and 0.3%. Then, the solution is added to the wastewater in an appropriate amount, and the mixture is stirred thoroughly to allow the polyacrylamide to fully contact the impurities in the wastewater. Subsequently, organic matter, suspended solids, and other pollutants in the wastewater are removed through flocculation, sedimentation, and dewatering processes.

Polyacrylamide's Role in Municipal Wastewater Treatment

In municipal wastewater treatment, polyacrylamide plays several key roles:

(1) Flocculation: PAM can bind with suspended solids in the wastewater, forming larger flocs to achieve solid-liquid separation. This helps to improve sedimentation rates and reduce the burden on subsequent treatment equipment.

(2) Purification: PAM can effectively adsorb harmful substances in wastewater, such as heavy metal ions and organic pollutants. By reducing the pollutant content in wastewater, it helps improve effluent quality.

(3) Dewatering: In sludge dewatering processes, PAM can improve the dewatering performance of the sludge, resulting in better dewatering outcomes.

Polyacrylamide Products and Applications

(1) Cationic polyacrylamide: Suitable for treating wastewater containing anionic suspended solids, such as organic wastewater and acidic wastewater. It can bind with anionic suspended solids in the wastewater, forming flocs to promote solid-liquid separation.

(2) Anionic polyacrylamide: Suitable for treating wastewater containing cationic suspended solids, such as mine wastewater and alkaline wastewater. It can bind with cationic suspended solids in the wastewater, forming flocs to promote solid-liquid separation.

(3) Non-ionic polyacrylamide: Suitable for treating neutral wastewater, such as domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater. It can enhance the flocculation effect of sludge and improve dewatering performance.

Polyacrylamide Use in Municipal Wastewater Treatment

(1) Dosage selection: Choose an appropriate PAM dosage based on the specific characteristics of the wastewater. Typically, the dosage ranges between 1-10 ppm. Adjust the specific dosage based on the wastewater treatment results.

(2) Preparation of pre-dissolved solution: Mix polyacrylamide with water to create a pre-dissolved solution with a concentration between 0.1% and 0.5%. Note that the pre-dissolved solution should be stirred evenly to fully utilize the effects of polyacrylamide.

(3) Addition method: Add the pre-dissolved solution to the wastewater treatment system through a dosing pump or other equipment. Choose an appropriate addition point, typically at the inlet of the flocculation reaction tank.


(1) Avoid mixing with other chemicals: Polyacrylamide should be stored separately and not mixed with other chemicals. In particular, avoid mixing cationic and anionic polyacrylamides to prevent negatively affecting the flocculation effect.

(2) Ensure safety during use: Polyacrylamide powder can generate static electricity when dry, so it is essential to prevent dust dispersion and avoid inhalation or skin contact. Wear protective equipment such as masks and gloves during operation.

(3) Storage conditions: Polyacrylamide should be stored in a dry, cool, and well-ventilated environment. Avoid direct sunlight to prevent a decline in polyacrylamide performance.


Polyacrylamide plays a vital role in municipal wastewater treatment, effectively achieving solid-liquid separation, water purification, and dewatering processes. When using polyacrylamide, it is important to choose the appropriate product type and dosage based on the specific wastewater characteristics and pay attention to the preparation and addition methods of the pre-dissolved solution. At the same time, ensure safe operation, avoid mixing with other chemicals, and maintain suitable storage conditions. The correct use of polyacrylamide will contribute to improving municipal wastewater treatment results, protecting water resources, and achieving sustainable development.

In the wastewater treatment industry, polyacrylamide has become an indispensable agent. Facing the ever-increasing demand for wastewater treatment, choosing the right polyacrylamide product and mastering the correct use methods are crucial for enhancing treatment results and reducing treatment costs. Simultaneously, it is essential to focus on safe operation and storage conditions to ensure that polyacrylamide achieves its maximum effect during wastewater treatment.

In practical applications, the type and dosage of polyacrylamide can be adjusted based on the different requirements of wastewater treatment processes. Moreover, by optimizing polyacrylamide product formulations for specific industries and wastewater treatment scenarios, its performance in specific application fields can be improved. Only through continuous innovation and optimization can polyacrylamide contribute greater value in the field of municipal wastewater treatment and make a more significant contribution to human life and environmental protection.

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